In thinking through the changes that are happening to resumes (and the contexts in which this document is typically encountered), Hymes’ SPEAKING grid mnemonic provides a means for capturing and organizing some of the more salient developments.
S – setting
P – participants
E – ends
A – acts
K – key
I – instrumentalities
N – norms
G – genre
Major changes have been witnessed at the levels of Participants and considerations at the level of Instrumentalities, specifically that while the vast majority of resumes used to be mailed, now they are often shared electronically, often by a mutual acquaintance via e-mail. Not only does it now become crucial to think about how a resume is experienced via a screen (including choices including use of white space, amount of text, placement, number and ordering of bullets, as well as layout generally will all be experienced differently on a screen than in printed form), formatting may get altered through dissemination or uploading to a resume or job bank.
Use of Keywords reflects another shift in use of resumes influenced by technology, which is that the first “person” who reads your resume nowadays may in fact be a computer, who has been programmed to search for and calculate the use of particular words. Years ago, with technological limitations, it used to be understood that applicant tracking systems would only search the first 100 words of a resume. This led to resume writers cramming in as many keywords at the very beginning as possible. Nowadays, such technological limitations no longer apply, and resume creators spread keywords throughout the document. This has changed the formatting of the summary or overview section, which now rather than giving a “career objective” or “keywords” list at the top of a resume as used to be found. As it is now used, this section serves as way to help actively “frame” experience for those who read it, especially for those candidates who do not want to have their experience be read strictly chronologically. Another option that a resume creator has in this regard is moving from a strictly chronological format to one that is more functional – or hybrid.
Practices are shifting so radically in fact with technology, that some employers do not even want to see a resume nowadays. They may impact Acts in that a job advertisement now may request simply that you forward a link to your LinkedIn profile rather than resume and cover letter. This change in fact may be so transformative that years down the road there might not even be such a thing as a resume any more. To think about this development in terms of Norms and the focus of this chapter, that of the shift in deictic center, would be to recognize that when the message cannot be targeted to the specific audiences that has come to be the central practice of creating a resume. Norms of length may shift as well as LinkedIn profiles tend to be a great deal longer than any one resume, which may impact Key.
In fact, the collection of activities surrounding asking for a job may shift so much that the Genre itself may even become a thing of the past. However, regardless of the changes that have been observed, and will not doubt continue to be observed at these levels the Ends of a resume, at least for the person creating it is likely to endure. However, remember that your ultimate Ends here are very different from those of your potential employer. You want a job. They want to be sure not make a hiring mistake. Use your resume to reassure them.
Again, we return to the idea that a resume is a conversational interaction. Shifting your deictic center means anticipating these questions in the mind of your reader.